A homeless person is a person who lives in a situation that does not have a place to live and does not have a permanent job and wanders in public places so that life is not in accordance with the norms of a decent life in society.
A beggar is a person who earns by asking for begging in a public place in various ways and reasons to get mercy from others.
Gepeng (bums and beggars) is a person who lives wandering and begging at the same time. Because they do not have a permanent residence and for various reasons they have to live under bridges, public parks, roadsides, river banks, train stations, or various other public facilities to sleep and carry out their daily lives.
The characteristics of the sprawl (bums and beggars) are:
- Having no place to live
Most of these slums and beggars do not have a place to live or where they usually wander in public places.
- Living below the poverty line
Their slums do not have a fixed income that can guarantee for their future life even for a day they have to beg or scavenge to buy food for their life.
- Live with uncertainty.
The sprawl, they live wandering and begging every day, they are very concerned because if they are sick they cannot get social security like that of civil servants, namely ASKES for treatment and others.
- Wearing tattered clothes
Squatters usually never wear neat clothes or ties but rather shabby and dirty clothes.
Factors causing sprawl (homeless and beggars)
Social problems cannot be avoided in people’s lives, especially those in urban areas, namely the problem of homeless people and beggars. The social problems of homeless people and beggars are the accumulation and interaction of various problems such as poverty, low education, lack of work skills, environment, socio-culture, health and so on. The description of these problems can be described as follows:
- The problem of poverty.
Poverty causes a person to be unable to meet minimum basic needs and reach public services so that they cannot develop their personal and family life properly.
- Educational Problems
In general, the education level of homeless and beggars is relatively low, so it becomes an obstacle to getting decent work
- Work skills problems
In general, homeless people and beggars do not have skills that match the demands of the labor market.
- Socio-cultural issues
There are several socio-cultural factors that cause someone to become a homeless person and a beggar.
a. Low self-esteem.
Low self-esteem to a group of people, resulting in not having a good sense of asking.
b. Surrender to fate.
They assume that poverty is their condition as homeless people and beggars are fate, so there is no will to make changes.
c. The freedom and pleasures of life overwhelm
There is a special pleasure for people who live wandering
The impact of shipyards and beggars (flattened)
The presence of homeless people and beggars in public places will cause a lot of social problems in the midst of social life, including:
- Environmental issues (spatial planning)
Homeless and beggars generally do not have a permanent place to live, living in areas that are actually prohibited from being used as right to live, such as: parks, under bridges and riverbanks. Therefore they in big cities are very disturbing public order, community tranquility and cleanliness and beauty of the city.
- Population issues
Homeless and beggars whose lives roam the streets and public places, most do not have an identity card (KTP/KK) registered in the local kelurahan (RT/RW) and most of them live together as husband and wife without a legal marriage bond.
- Security and order issues
The rise of homeless and beggars in an area can cause social insecurity to disrupt security and order in the area.
- Crime problems
Indeed, we cannot deny that there are many factors that cause this crime to be carried out by homeless people and beggars in crowded places, ranging from violent theft to sexual harassment.
The solution to the problem of homeless people and beggars is by means of social rehabilitation
Before we talk further about social rehabilitation, we need to know what social rehabilitation is for the homeless and beggars, namely an organized and planned process of social services and rehabilitation, including physical development efforts, social mental guidance, skills provision and training.