Certain parenting styles can encourage a positive attitude towards education or higher academic self-efficacy so that it will affect the intention to obtain good grades and subsequently have an impact on academic results. Many studies have shown that parenting styles can help promote the development of healthy psychosocial competencies which in turn affect school achievement (Hayek, Schneider, Lahoud, Tueni, & de Vries, 2022). Therefore, it is important for us to know healthy parenting patterns in the family.
Dr. Diana Setiyawati, M.Hsc.Psy., Psychologist/Head of Center for Public Mental Health (CPMH) Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada in an online lecture with the theme “Conventional Parenting in Today’s Day” explained that in general there are four types of parenting patterns. First, the authoritarian parenting style has rules and expectations that are rigid, enforced strictly, tend to be restrictive, and overprotective. The behavior of children that can be seen from this parenting style is easily involved in conflict, easily offended, prone to stress, unstable emotions, and difficult to make decisions. Second, permissive parenting style has unclear rules or expectations, is inconsistent in applying discipline or providing feedback, ignores children’s preferences, and rarely forces children to conform to parental standards. The behavior of children seen with this parenting style is impulsive-aggressive, rebellious, domineering, and lack of enthusiasm.
Next is the rejection style of parenting, which has rigid rules and expectations, does not pay attention to children’s needs, and rarely has expectations for children. The child’s behavior is seen as immature or childish and has psychological problems. The fourth parenting style is uninvolved (Univolved Style). This pattern has a parenting style with unclear rules and expectations, ignoring, letting the child as long as it doesn’t disturb the parents. Children’s behavior that is seen is withdrawn, solitary or aloof, and underachievement. The last is the Authoritative Style parenting style which has clear rules and expectations, there is closeness and control, is open to children, and provides feedback. The behavior of the children seen is independent, cheerful, able to manage stress, and achievement.
“Two important things related to parenting are support (closeness) and control (flexibility). The authoritative parenting style is ideal. Of course, the character of a child who is independent, cheerful, able to manage stress and achieves is what we want,” Diana said on Friday (29/7).
Diana said that families who adopt a healthy parenting style have better mental health and can maintain positive relationships with others and have a purpose in life. Good parenting patterns are also found with good and secure child nutrition, developing high self-control in children, and preventing the development of anti-social behavior.
“The key to healthy parenting is that the father and mother are compact, which in the end leads to family resilience,” he said.
We can see the full description of the Online Lecture here