Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is [information systems] theories that model how users receive and use technology. The model shows that when users are presented with a new software package, a number of factors influence their decisions about how and when they will use it, notably:
Hi Perceived usefulness (PU)
“The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system will improve his or her job performance”.
By Fred Davis
Hi Perceived ease of use (EOU)
“The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system will be effort-free”.
By Fred Davis
Technology acceptance model is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned action (TRA) in the literature. It was developed by Fred Davis and Richard Bagozzi. TAM replaces many measures of TRA attitude with two measures of technology acceptance, ease of use, and usability. TRA and TAM, both have strong behavioral elements, assuming that when a person forms an intention to act, they will be free to act without restriction. In the real world there will be many obstacles, such as limited ability, time constraints, environmental or organizational limitations, or subconscious habits that will limit freedom of action.
Theory of Reasoned Action
TRA argues that individual behavior is driven by behavioral intention where behavioral intention is a function of the individual’s attitude towards the behavior and subjective norms surrounding behavioral performance.
Attitude towards behavior is defined as an individual’s positive or negative feelings about performing a behavior. It is determined through an assessment of a person’s beliefs about the consequences that arise from a behavior and an evaluation of the desirability of these consequences. Formally, the overall attitude can be assessed as the sum of individual consequences x desirability ratings for all the expected consequences of the behavior.
Subjective norm defined as an individual’s perception of whether people important to the individual think that the behavior should be performed. The contribution of the opinion of each referent given is weighed by the motivation that an individual must comply with the wishes of the referent. Therefore, the overall subjective norm can be expressed as the sum of individual perceptions x motivational ratings for all relevant references.
Algebraically TRA can be represented as BBI = w1AB + w2SN where B is behaviorBI is behavioral intentionAB is attitude towards behavior, SN is subjective normand w1 and w2 are weight represents the importance of each term.
This model has several limitations including a significant risk of confounding between attitudes and norms because attitudes can often be reframed as norms and vice versa. The second limitation is the assumption that when a person forms an intention to act, they will be free to act without restriction. In practice, constraints such as limited ability, time, environmental or organizational constraints, and subconscious habits will limit the freedom to act. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) attempts to overcome this limitation.
Theory of Planned Behavior
TPB argues that individual behavior is driven by behavioral intention where behavioral intention is a function of the individual’s attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms surrounding the performance of the behavior, and the individual’s perception of the ease with which the behavior can be performed (behavioral behavior). control).
Behavior control defined as a person’s perception of the difficulty of performing a behavior. TPB views the control people have over their behavior as a continuum from behaviors that are easy to perform to behaviors that require a lot of effort, resources, etc.
Although Ajzen has suggested that the relationship between behavior and behavioral control outlined in the model should be between actual behavior and behavioral control rather than perceived behavioral control, the difficulty of assessing actual control has led to the use of perceived control as a proxy.
Theory of Acceptance and Use of Integrated Technology
It UTAU aims to explain user intentions to use IS and subsequent usage behavior. The theory states that four key constructs (performance expectations, effort expectations, social influence, and facilitating conditions) are direct determinants of use intention and behavior. Gender, age, experience, and voluntary use were proposed to mediate the impact of the four key constructs on use intention and behavior. This theory was developed through a review and consolidation of the construction of eight models used by previous research to explain IS usage behavior (reasoned action theory, technology acceptance model, and motivation model, planned behavior theory, combined theory of planned behavior / technology acceptance model, PC utilization model, theory of diffusion of innovation, and social cognitive theory). Subsequent validation of UTAUT in a longitudinal study was found to explain 70% of the variance in usage intentions.
The recent development of information technology applications targeting highly specialized individual professionals, such as doctors and lawyers, has proliferated substantially. Considering the rapid growth of innovative technology applications targeting individual professionals, it is important to examine the extent to which existing theories can explain or predict their technology acceptance. In this vein, the current study represents a conceptual replication of some previous model comparisons by re-examining theoretical models prevalent in healthcare settings involving different users and technologies. In particular, this study empirically examines the application of three theoretical models: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the decomposed TPB model which are potentially adequate for the targeted professional context. The focus of our investigation is the extent to which each model can explain physicians’ acceptance of telemedicine technology.